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Pozita gjeografike e Shqiperise

Shiko temėn e mėparshme Shiko temėn pasuese Shko poshtė  Mesazh [Faqja 1 e 1]

1 Pozita gjeografike e Shqiperise prej 04.09.08 10:53

Dibrani_84


gjeneral
gjeneral



Republika e Shqipėrisė

ShqipėriaShqipėria
Moto Kombėtare: Ti Shqipėri mė jep nder mė jep emrin shqipėtar
Feja e shqiptarit ėshtė Shqiptaria


Tė dhėna
28 nėntori 1912-Pamvarsia e Shqiperise
GjuhėGjuha Shqipe
KryeqytetiTirana
SistemiRepublikė Parlamentare
PresidentBamir Topi
KryeministėrSali Berisha
Sipėrfaqja
- ujore
28,748 km² - ( 139 -ta )
4.7 % - ( -ta )
Popullsia
Dendėsia
3,800,523 (Korrik 2007) - (126 -ta)
123.3 b. / km² - ( -ta)
BPV (nominal)
- pėr banorė
15.7 Miliard -(112 -ta)
4,400 -(93 -ta)
MonedhaLek;
/100 Qindarka
Zona kohoreUTC + 01:00 (verė + 02:00)
Pavarėsia
nga P.Osmane
28 Nėntor 1912 - (shpallur)
Nė OKB nga14 Dhjetor 1955
Himni kombėtarHimni i Flamurit
Kodi i internetit TLD.al
Prefiksi telefonik+355
Shqipėria (geg. Shqipnia, int. Albania) ėshtė njė vend mesdhetar i cili shtrihet nė juglindje tė Evropės, nė perėndim tė Gadishullit Ballkanik, me koordinatat gjeografike: 41°19'39" gjerėsi veriore dhe 19°49'8" gjatėsi lindore. Shqipėria ka njė sipėrfaqe prej 28.748 km². Historia
Skanderbeg


Ahmet Zogu



Enver Hoxha
Historia e Shqipėrisė

Historia e Shqipėrisė nė tė vėrtetė nuk pėrfshinė vetėm tė
dhėnat historike tė hapėsirės gjeografike mbi tė cilėn gjenden
teritoret shqiptare por edhe hapsirat tjera tė banuara me shqiptarė e
qė kanė mbetur jasht kufijve tė shqipėrisė sė sotme e qė nė tė kaluarėn
kan qenė njė tėrėsi shqipėri... Lashtėsia
Mendohet qė rrjedha prehistorike e shqiptarėve tė jetė nga njė fis i
stėrlashtė indo-evropian tė cilėt historiani grek Herodoti i
pėrshkruante me emrin "pellazgė". Shumė njerėz i konsiderojnė
shqiptarėt pasardhės direkt tė njė fisi tė lashtė ilir, me emrin
"Albani",ose "Albanėt" i cili ishte vendosur ne Shqipėrinė e sotme.
Disa tė tjerė mendojnė se Shqiptarėt dhe ilirėt janė pasardhės direkt
tė pellazgėve, qė kanė jetuar mijėra vjet para Krishtit. Prania e tyre
mund tė shikohet shumė mirė nė formulimin e strukturave politike nė
shekullin e 6 p.e.s. Metalpunues dhe luftėtarė tė shkėlqyer, ilirėt
krijuan shumė mbretėri tė vogla brenda vendit tė tyre, duke luftuar
ndėrmjet njeri-tjetrit pėr kohėn mė tė madhe tė historisė sė tyre.
Vetėm gjatė shekullit tė 6 p.e.s, tė gjitha mbretėritė u bashkuan pėr
tė mbrojtur vendin nga fqinjėt: nga mbretėria e Molosianėve nė veri te
Shqipėrisė, mbretėria e Maqedonisė dhe nga mbretėria e Pionisė.
Pellazgėt


Pellazgėt ishin njė popull i lashtė indo-evropian qė sipas disa shkrimeve antike tė lėna nga (Homeri, Herodoti, Tukididi
etj.) jetonin nė pellgun e Egjeut dhe nė bregdetin perėndimor tė Aziės
sė Vogėl, nė Peloponez, nė Greqinė Qendrore, nė Thesali dhe nė afėrsi
tė kėtyre viseve.
Nė mesin e mijėvjecarit tė tretė dhe nė fillim tė mijėvjecarit te
dytė para Krishtit erdhėn nga stepat e Lindjes grupe tė reja popujsh qė
merreshin me blegtori.Kėtu u pėrzien me banorėt vendės dhe kėshtu u
krijua bashkėsia e re kulturore e Gadishullit Ballkanik.Kjo
popullsi mendohet tė jetė popullsia e lashtė pellazge. Sipas shumė
studiuesve shqiptarė e tė huaj, pellazgėt ishin parardhėsit e ilirėve.
Shumė njerėz i konsiderojnė shqiptaret pasardhės direkt tė njė fisi
tė lashtė ilir, me emrin "Albani",ose "Albanėt" i cili ishte vendosur
ne Shqipėrinė e sotme. Disa tė tjerė mendojnė se Shqiptarėt dhe ilirėt
janė pasardhės direkt tė pellazgėve, qė kanė jetuar mijėra vjet para
Krishtit. Prania e tyre mund tė shikohet shumė mirė nė formulimin e
strukturave politike nė shekullin e 6 p.e.s. Metalpunues dhe luftėtarė
tė shkėlqyer, ilirėt krijuan shumė mbretėri tė vogla brenda vendit tė
tyre, duke luftuar ndėrmjet njeri-tjetrit pėr kohėn mė tė madhe tė
historisė sė tyre. Vetėm gjatė shekullit tė 6 p.e.s, tė gjitha
mbretėritė u bashkuan pėr tė mbrojtur vendin nga fqinjėt: nga mbretėria
e Molosianėve nė veri te Shqipėrisė, mbretėria e Maqedonisė dhe nga
mbretėria e Pionisė.Bartėsit
e kulturės sė neolitit dhe tė fillimit tė epokės sė bronxit nė truallin
e Shqipėrisė. Pėrsa i pėrket krahinave jugore tė vėndit tonė, ka tė
ngjarė qė nė kėtė kohė, nė kėto vise. ashtu si nė Greqi dhe nė pellgun
e Egjeut, tė kenė banuar fise tė afėrta, midis tyre, tė cilat te
autorėt e vjetėr njihen me emrat: pellazgė, lelegė, kaukanė, karianė
etj. Sipas tyre kėto ishin fise tė vjetra vendese, tė cilat mė vonė u
mbuluan nga helenėt e ardhur, dhe u asimiluan prej tyre. Ndėr ta
pellazgėt konsideroheshin si fiset mė tė rėndėsishme, prandaj edhe
njoftimet e autorėve per ta janė pak a shumė tė hollėsishme.
Artikulli kryesor: Ilirėt


Ilirėt,
parardhėsit dymijė vjeēarė tė kombėsisė sė sotme me prejardhje
gjenetike tė grupeve fisnore tė familjeve tė medhaja shqiptare si nė
zonat urbane e rurale si dhe nga studimet mbi shumė individė me lidhje
gjaku 99% shqiptare,
vėrtetuar edhe nga studimet e botimet e fundit nga institutet kėrkimore
shkencore nga Evropa kontinentale, ShBA e Kanada, nga specialistėt e
huaj dhe shqiptarė tė shkencave antropologjike, gjenetike e
arkeologjike, banonin qė nga pjesa veri-perėndimore e Detit Adriatik deri nė Detin Jon, si dhe pėrgjatė kufirit tokėsor tė Gadishullit Ilirik me Dalmatėt, Maqedonasit dhe Grekėt...
Shqipėria nėn sundimin osman
Sulmet e ushtrive osmane pėr pushtimin e viseve shqiptare nisėn nė
mesin e viteve 80 tė shek. XIV. Tė udhėhequra nga bejlerbeu i Rumelisė,
Timurtash Pasha, nė vitin 1385 ushtritė osmane, pasi morėn Sofjen, u
futėn nė Shqipėri dhe pushtuan qytetet e Shtipit, tė Pėrlepit, tė
Manastirit dhe tė Kosturit. Nė dokumente perėndimore dhe osmane tė
shek. XIV-XV pėr qytetet e Shkupit, tė Manastirit, tė Kosturit, tė
Janinės etj., si dhe pėr Fushė-Dardaninė shprehimisht ėshtė shėnuar se
ato ishin "nė Shqipėri" apo "nė tokat shqiptare".
Rilindja Kombėtare
Nga mesi i shekullit tė 19-tė Turqia
ishte nė ethet e "Ēėshtjes Lindore", nė kohėn qė ballkanasit, duke
pėrfshirė edhe shqiptarėt, kėrkonin tė plotėsonin ėndrrėn e tyre
kombėtare. Pėr tė mbrojtur dhe pėrkrahur interesat e tyre kombėtare,
shqiptarėt u mblodhen nė Prizren, njė qytet i Kosovės, nė vitin 1878 dhe krijuan Lidhjen Shqiptare tė Prizrenit tė njohur mė shpesh sot si Lidhja e Prizrenit.
Lidhja kishte dy qėllime kryesore, atė politike dhe atė kulturore. Sė
pari, u pėrpoq (pa sukses) tė bashkonte tė gjitha trojet shqiptare -
atė kohe tė ndara nė katėr vilajete, ose krahina, e Kosovės, e
Shkodrės, e Manastirit,
e Janinės - nė njė shtet vetqeverisės brenda sistemit tė Perandorisė
Osmane. Sė dyti, mprehi njė lėvizje pėr zhvillimin e gjuhės shqipe,
letėrsisė, arsimimit, dhe kulturės. Nė vijė me programin e dytė, nė
vitin 1908 udhėheqėsit shqiptarė u takuan nė qytetin e Manastirit
(sllavisht: Bitola, Maqedoni) dhe pėrshtatėn njė alfabet kombėtar. Ai
bazohej mė sė shumti nė shkrimin latin, ky zėvendėsoi disa alfabete tė
tjera, duke pėrfshire alfabetin arab dhe grek, qė ishin gjer nė atė
kohė nė pėrdorim....

Shiko profilin e anėtarit http://dibra.bigforumonline.com

Dibrani_84


gjeneral
gjeneral
Ekonomia e Shqipėrisė

Pėrpara vitit 1991, partia komuniste nė pushtet e drejtonte ekonomine e vendit me ane te nje serie planesh Pesė Vjeēare.
Tė gjitha mjetet e prodhimit kontrolloheshin nga shteti, bujqesia ishte
kolektivizuar plotesisht dhe industria u be prone popullore dhe
sipermarrja privati u ndalua rreptesisht. pervec kesaj Kushtetuta e
Republikes Socialiste te Shqiperise e ndalonte qeverine te kerkonte
ndihma nga jashte, te pranonte borxhe apo te lejonte investime te
huaja. Deshtimi i kesaj ekonomie te kontrolluar e ka shtyre qeverine te
decentralizje procesin e vendimmarrjes ekonomike. Ndalimi i tregetise
private ėshtė shfuqizuar, qeveria tashme pranon borxhe dhe kredi te
huaja dhe perpiqet te krijoje vende te reja pune me ane te
bashkepunimeve me partneret nga jashte. Keto masa kane pėr qellim
rritjen e industrive te lehta, prodhimet ushqimore dhe bujqesore.
Progresi i viteve te fundit ėshtė i dukshem dhe tregu tani permban te
gjithe artikujt ushqimore te cilet ne te kaluaren mungonin shpesh.
Shqiperia ka nevoje pėr me shume punonjes te specializuar dhe rikthimin
ne vend te studenteve te rinj, te arsimuar ne Perendim dhe te mbrujtur
me nje kulture me te plote dhe me me shume ekspertize se moshataret e
tyre brenda vendit.//

Pasurit natyrore

Pėr njė sipėrfaqe tė vogėl sa ka Shqipėria mund tė thuhet se ėshtė e
begatėshme me pasuri natyrore. Pjesa veri-perėndimore e vendit ėshtė e
pasur me naftė dhe gaz natyror. Ndėrsa nė veri-lindje gjenden rezerva tė konsiderueshme tė mineraleve ndėr tė cilat vlen tė pėrmenden: kromi, hekur-nikeli. Pjesa mė e madhe e rezervave tė qymyrit ėshtė gjetur nė rrethinėn e Tiranės.
Po ashtu Shqipėria ėshtė e begatuar me lumenj tė rrėmbyeshėm tė cilėt janė edhe potencial pėr Hidrocentrale. Vec Hidrocentraleve ekzistuese mbi lumin e Drinit
janė bėrė hulumtime qė nga ky potencial i lumenjve tė ndėrtohen disa
Hidrocentrale me tė cilat ky vend do tė bėhej eksportues edhe mė i madh
i energjisė elektrike.


Industria

Politika e qeverise komuniste e industrializimit te shpejte, synonte
ta bente vendin sa me te pavarur qe ishte e mundur, gjė e cila ēoi ne
krijimin e nje industrie shume degėshe relativisht moderne. Kjo
industri tani gjeneron me tepėr se gjysmen e te ardhurave kombetare, me
pėrparėsi shfrytezimin e burimeve te konsiderueshme natyrore te vendit.
Shqiperia ėshtė prodhuesi i trete pėr kromin. Elektrifikimi i te gjithe
vendit perfundoi ne vitin 1971, dhe brenda dy dekadave Shqiperia po eksportonte energji elektrike ne disa prej vendeve fqinje.
Industria e Shqipėrisė ėshtė e bazuar kryesisht nė prodhimet vendase
bujqėsore, ndėrsa industria e rėndė dhe e makinave ėshtė e zhvilluar
kryesisht pėr pajisjen e fabrikave, uzinave dhe pėr prodhimin e
energjisė elektrike. Vec energjisė elektrike, Shqipėria eksporton edhe
naftė dhe pėrbėrės tė saj.
Vec pėrvojės nga industria e lehtė dhe pjesėrisht nga industria e
rėndė (shfrytėzimin e naftės dhe energjisė elektrike), industria e
Shqipėrisė ėshtė disi e fjetur. Shkaktarėt e shembjes sė industrisė dhe
ngadalėsimit nė shfrytėzimin e pasurive natyrore janė tė shumta, si
mungesa e organizimit tė mirėfilltė, makineria dhe pajisjet e vjetruar
si dhe importimi i produkteve industriale janė duke e zhdukur
industrinė vendase. Po kėshtu, pėr shkak tė investimeve (tė pėrkrahura
nga ekspertėt perėndimorė) tė gabuara nė ekonomi nga qeveritė mbas
shembjes sė komunizmit, industria e Shqipėrisė nuk ėshtė mė nė gjendje
tė pėrmbushė kėrkesat ekonomike tė popullatės vendase.


Bujqėsia

Mėse gjysma e fuqisė punėtore e Shqipėrisė janė tė punsur nė
sektorin e agrokultuės. Me njė tė katėrten pjesė tokė tė punueshme,
tani vendi ėshtė po thuajse nė gjendje tė i pėrmbushė tė gjitha nevojat
vendase me produktet ushqimore. Qė nga mesi i viteve 1970-ta, e mė
vonė, Shqipėria ėshtė nė gjendje qė tė vetėfurnizohet me bukė.
Prodhimet bujqėsore kryesore tė drithėrave janė : gruri, misri
(kalamoqi),panxhar sheqeri . Po ashtu edhe me prodhimet buqėsore tė
pemtarisė Shqipėria i mbullonė dhe ėshtė nė gjendje tė eksportojė si
p.sh patate dhe fruta tė ndryshme. Ndėr prodhimet bujqėsore qė pėrdoren
nė industri vlen tė pėrmenden lule djeli dhe duhani.
Shqipėria pėrpos pemėve dhe perimeve kultivonė edhe blektorin nė tė cilen dallohen kulivimi i gjedheve. delet dhe i derrit.
Gjatė kohės sė regjimit komunistė, qeveria e tyr ka ndėrmarrur hapa
themelorė pėr zhvillimin e Agrokulturės. Programe tė niveli tė lartė
janė ndėrmarrur tė cilat kanė bėrė bonifikimin, pėrmisimi dhe ujitja e
tokės punuse ekzistuese dhe zgjerimi i saj nė disa raste edhe tharja e
moqaleve. Tė gjitha kėto plane janė realizuar me qėllim tė zhillimit nė
nivel mė tė lartė tė Agrokulturės. Tani (2005) munges e inciativave tė
tilla ka sjelluar demoralizimin e agrokulturės e cila ėshtė kėthyer nė
nivel bujqėsisė tradicionale.
Kolektivizimi i tokave tė punueshme gjatė kohės komuniste nė
Shqipėri dhe ri-privatizimi i tyre pas shkatėrrimit tė bllokut
komunistė janė bėrė gjatė kohės sė quajtur "koha e tranzicionit". Kjo
ka pasur pasoja pėr njė pjesė tė buqėve tė cilėt kanė qenė tė aftė pėr
kultivimin e bujqėsisė mirėpo nuk kanė pasur njohuri nė plasimin e
produkteve nė tregun Shqiptarė. Pas privatizimit dhe stabilizimit tė
gjendjes, pronarėt e tokave janė duke u orientuar pėr rimėkėmbjen e
agrikulturės Shqiptare dhe eksportimin e produkteve tė tyre.
Tregtia

Eksporti dhe importi i Shqipėrisė zhvillohet kryesisht me partnerėt
e saj ekonomikė si Rumania, Italia, Republika Ēeke dhe Gjermania.
Shqipėria tani eksporton kryesisht produkte gjysmė finale tė derivateve
tė naftės, tė kromit , tė hekurit si dhe duhan, verė, pemė dhe perime.
Ndėrsa importon makina, pajisje, minerale, metale, materiale
ndėrtimtarie dhe produkte ushqimore.


Transporti

Binarėt e hekurudhės nė Shqipėri kanė filluar tė shtrohen nė vitin
1947 dhe pas 40 viteve Tirana ėshtė e lidhur nė njė rrjetė hekurudhor
me tė gjitha qendrat industriale tė vendit. Rrjeti rrugor nė anėn
tjetėr ėshtė i dendur kur tė merret parasysh tereni malorė i vendit.
Transporti ajrorė nuk ėshtė i zhvilluar edhe pse nė kohėt e fundit ka
filluar tė jetė mė prezent.

Shiko profilin e anėtarit http://dibra.bigforumonline.com

Dibrani_84


gjeneral
gjeneral
Gjeografia e Shqipėrisė



MALI I ZI
K O S O V A
I . R . J . M .
G R E Q I A
I T A L I A
TIRANA
Tropoja
Kukėsi
Shkodra
Shėngjini
Lezha
Peshkopia
Durrėsi
Elbasani
Lushnja
Pogradeci
Fieri
Berati
Korēa
Vlora
Tepelena
Gjirokastra
Saranda
Butrinti
Deti Adriatik
Deti Jon
Jezerca (2694m)
Korabi (2751m)



Shqipėria
ndodhet nė pjesėn juglindore tė Evropės, nė pjesėn perėndimore tė
gadishullit Ballkanik e shtrihet midis koordinatave gjeografike 39
gradė e 38' dhe 42 gradė e 39' te gjėrėsisė veriore dhe 19 gradė e 16'
te gjėrėsisė lindore, ne largėsi pothuajse tė barabartė nga Ekuadori
dhe Poli i Veriut.
Sipėrfaqja e pėrgjithshme ėshtė 28.748 kilometra katrore. Kryeqyteti i saj ėshtė Tirana.
Gjatėsia e pėrgjithshme e vijės kufitare ėshtė 1094 km, nga te cilat
657 km - kufi tokėsor, 316 km - kufi detar, 48 km - kufi lumor dhe 73
km - kufi liqenor. Nė veri e verilindje ka 529 km vijė kufitare me
Malin e Zi, Kosovėn dhe ish republikėn jugosllave tė Maqedonisė, ndėrsa
nė jug e juglindje me Greqine njė vijė kufitare prej 271 km. Nė
perėndim Shqipėria laget nga deti Adriatik e nė jug-perėndim nga deti Jon.

Pozita gjeografike nė Evropė
Shqipėria ka njė pozitė tė favorshme gjeografike, pasi gjendet nė
kryqėzimin e rrugeve mė tė shkurtėra qė kalojnė nga Mesdheu perėndimor
pėr nė Ballkan e Azinė e Vogėl dhe kontrollon kalimin pėrmes kanalit
detar tė Otrantos. Luginat e saj mė tė gjėra janė ato tė lumenjve Drin,
Shkumbin dhe Vjosė, qė lehtėsojne, njėkohėsisht, lidhjen e brendshme tė
Ballkanit me detin Adriatik dhe tė Azisė sė Vogėl me viset e Mesdheut.
Bregdeti i Adriatikut shtrihet nga gryka e Bunės deri nė Kepin e
Gjuhėzes. Nė gjirin e Vlorės e nė drejtim tė jugut, bregdeti ėshtė i
lartė, shkėmbor, ku dominon mali i Karaburunit. Gjiret kryesore tė
Shqipėrise janė: gjiri i Drinit, i Lalėzit, i Durrėsit, i Karavastasė dhe i Vlorės, nė hyrje tė sė cilės gjendet ishulli i Sazanit./
Relievi

Relevi i Shqipėris
Relievi i Shqipėrise ėshtė kryesisht malor. Vargmalet e para alpine
u formuan nga mbarimi i jurasikut, ndėrsa gjatė erės kenozoike u
shpejtua procesi malformues nė tėrėsine e Albanideve, qė aktualisht
pėrbėjne tokėn e nėntoken e Shqipėrise. Lartėsia mesatare e relievit
ėshtė 708 metra, ose 2 herė mė e lartė se mesatarja e Evropės.
Lartėsitė mė tė mėdha gjenden nė Alpet shqiptare dhe nė malet e Lindjes
(Korabi 2751 metra mbi nivelin e detit, pėrben edhe majėn mė tė lartė
tė Shqipėrisė).
Fushat zene kryesisht pjesėn perėndimore, pergjatė bregdetit
Adriatik, por ka edhe nė pjesė tė tjera tė vendit. Fushat mė tė larta
janė ato tė pellgut tė Korēes, mbi 800 metra mbi nivelin e detit.
Fushat gjenden kryesisht pėrgjate lumenjve kryesore si: Vjosė, Devoll,
Osum, Shkumbin, Erzen, Mat e Drin, ku gjenden, gjithashtu, edhe tokat
bujqėsore e qendra tė mėdha banimi, si dhe pėrshkohen nga rrugė te
rėndėsishme komunikimi.
Territori i Shqipėrisė ndahet nė 4 krahina tė mėdha natyrore (fiziko-gjeografike):

  • Alpet shqiptare
  • Krahina malore qendrore
  • Krahina malore jugore
  • Ultesira bregdetar
Lagunat kryesore jane: Laguna e Lunres (Vilunit), e Patokut, e Bishtrakes, e Karavastase, e Nartes dhe e Pashalimanit.

Korabi
Plazhet kryesore jane: Plazhi i Velipojes, i Tales,i Shengjinit, i
Durresit, i Divjakes, i Semanit, i Vlores, i Dhermiut, i Himares dhe ai
i Sarandes.
Kepat kryesore jane: Kepi i Rodonit, i Bishtit te Palles dhe i Gjuhezes.
Lumenjėt
Pėr shkak tė veēorive morfologjike, Shqipėria ėshtė shumė e pasur nė
lumenj. Mė shumė se 152 lumenj dhe pėrrenj, formojnė pėrfundimisht 8
lumenj tė mėdhenj, qė rrjedhin nga juglindja drejt veriperėndimit,
kryesisht drejt bregdetit Adriatik. Rreth 65% e pellgut ujėmbledhės tė
tyre shtrihet brenda territorit shqiptar. Kėta lumenj shkarkojnė nė
detin Adriatik mesatarisht 1’308 m3/s (min. 649 dhe maks. 2’164 m3/s);
moduli mesatar i rrjedhjes ėshtė 30,2 l/s . km2. Nga prurja e
pėrgjithshme vjetore prej 42,25 miliardė m3, vetėm 12,8 miliardė u
pėrkasin ujėrave nėntokėsore. Mesatarja vjetore e rreshjeve nė
territorin shqiptar ėshtė 1’430 mm/vit, por tė shpėrndara jo
uniformisht pėrgjatė vitit: rreth 40% nė dimėr, 32% nė pranverė, 17% nė
vjeshtė dhe vetėm 11% nė verė.
Prej rreshjeve tė ērregullta, lumenjtė janė tė rrėmbyeshėm, gėrryes
(nė pjesėn lindore tė vendit) dhe pėrgjithėsisht formojnė shtrat tė
gjerė dhe tė lakuar nė Ultėsirėn Bregdetare Perėndimore. Lumenjtė
kryesorė rrjedhin nga juglindja drejt veriperėndimit, me kah drejt
perėndimit nė deltat bregdetare. Pėrmbajtja minerale e ujėrave ėshtė
pėrgjithėsisht e ulėt, midis 150 dhe 500 mg/l, kryesisht si
bikarbonate. Temperatura luhatet nga 3,5 nė 8,9°C nė dimėr, dhe nga
17,8 nė 24,6°C nė verė. Gati gjithė lumenjtė shkarkojnė ujėrat nė detin
Adriatik, nė njė zonė prej rreth 150 km.[1]
Lumi
.
Gjatėsia
km
Pellgu
km2
Pru. mes.
m/s
Moduli i pru.
l/s/km2
Raproti i pru.
Maks/Min
Mineralizimi
mg/l

Buna415.187320-5,3-
Drini28514.17335224,85,1257
Mati1152.44110342,69,3222
Ishmi7467320,931,05,9461
Erzeni10976018,124,011,2
Shkumbini1812.44161,525,213,2317
Semani2815.64995,716,913,7440
Vjosa2726.70619529,17,2335

Tabela [2]


Klima
Shqipėria bėn pjesė nė brezin subtropikal dhe pėrfshihet nė zonėn
klimaterike mesdhetare, me dimėr relativisht tė shkurtėr e te butė dhe
me vere tė nxehtė e shumė tė thatė. Klima e Shqipėrise ka ndryshime tė
mėdha nga njė krahinė nė tjetrėn dhe kontraste tė mėdha nė temperature,
reshje, ndricimin diellor, lagėshtiren e ajrit, etj.
Ndricimi diellor lėviz nga 2731 orė nė vit nė Xarė tė Sarandės, nė
2722 orė nė vit nė Vlorė, 2560 orė nė vit nė Tiranė, 2246 orė nė
Peshkopi dhe 2046 orė nė vit nė Kukės.
Bien mesatarisht 1430 mm reshje nė vit dhe vijnė duke u pakėsuar nga perėndimi nė lindje.
Burim i tė dhėnave

  1. ^ Fakultetit tė Shkencave Natyrore (FShN), Universiteti i Tiranės
  2. ^ Fakultetit tė Shkencave Natyrore (FShN), Universiteti i Tiranės

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Dibrani_84


gjeneral
gjeneral
History of Albania
The name Albania is derived from an
ancient Illyrian tribe, the Albanoi, forbears of the modern Albanians
and the Albanian language derives from the language of the Illyrians.
Albanian is the official language (including Tosk and Gheg dialects).
Tosk is the principal Albanian dialect as the base for standard
Albanian and is used in education and other institutions.
Although Albania is a relatively homogenous country, ethnic
Albanians comprise approximately 95 percent of a total population of
over three million. An estimated three percent of the population is of
Greek descent; Vlachs, Roma, Serbs and Bulgarians make up the remaining
two percent. In terms of religious affiliation, 70 percent of Albanians
are Muslim; 20 percent are Albanian Orthodox and 10 percent are Roman
Catholic. In 1967, all mosques and churches were closed and religious
observances prohibited. In late 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
The territory - known in ancient times as Illyria - was long
dominated by Greeks and Romans before becoming part, in 395 AD, of the
Byzantine Empire, which lasted until the 8th century when
Bulgarian-Slavs started a progressive invasion of the land.
The Ottomans established their rule in 1389, marking the end of an
experience of two centuries of feudalism. An alliance (1444–1466) of
Albanian chiefs failed to halt the advance of the Ottoman Turks, and
the Ottoman Empire dominated the region for about 500 years, until it
proclaimed its independence on Nov. 28, 1912.


Modern Albanian borders were, in fact, marked in 1921 leaving one
third of ethnic Albanians in the territories of neighbouring States.
Ahmed Bey Zogu led the country first as a president in 1925 and then as
a king in 1928 (under the name of Zog I). He ruled until Italy annexed
Albania in 1939.
Communist guerrillas under Enver Hoxha seized power in 1944, near
the end of World War II. The country became officially the People's
Republic of Albania in 1946 and, in 1976, the People's Socialist
Republic of Albania. Hoxha was a devotee of Stalin, emulating the
Soviet leader's repressive tactics, but in 1961 he broke with Soviet
communism because of differences with Khrushchev and then aligned
himself with Chinese communism, which he also abandoned in 1978 after
the death of Mao. From then on Albania went its own way to forge its
individual version of the socialist state and became one of the most
isolated—and economically underdeveloped—countries in the world.


Hoxha was succeeded by Ramiz Alia in 1982, who legalized some
investment in Albania by foreign firms and expanded diplomatic
relations with the West. But, with the fall of communism in Eastern
Europe in 1989, various segments of Albanian society became politically
active and began to agitate against the government. In December 1990
Alia endorsed the creation of independent political parties, thus
signaling an end to the communists' official monopoly of power.
Elections in March 1991 gave the Communists a decisive majority.
But a general strike and street demonstrations soon forced the
all-Communist cabinet to resign. The opposition Democratic Party won a
landslide victory in the 1992 elections, and Sali Berisha, a former
cardiologist, became Albania's first elected president. The 1992
elections concluded 47 years of communist rule and started a period of
general outward openings with the re-establishment of diplomatic
relations and the adhesion to international organisations. Albania was
thus well on its way toward integrating its politics and institutions
with the West, which Albanians have historically viewed as their
cultural and geographic home.
But Albania's experiment with democratic reform and a free-market
economy went disastrously awry in March 1997, when large numbers of its
citizens invested in shady get-rich-quick pyramid schemes. Rioting
broke out, the country's fragile infrastructure collapsed, and
gangsters and rebels overran the country, plunging it into virtual
anarchy. A multinational protection force eventually restored order and
set up the elections that formally ousted President Sali Berisha.
Ilir Meta, elected prime minister in 1999, rapidly moved forward
in his first years to modernize the economy, privatize business, fight
crime, and reform the judiciary and tax systems. He resigned in Jan.
2002, frustrated by political infighting. In June 2002, former general
Alfred Moisiu was elected president, endorsed by both the Socialists
(headed by Fatos Nano) and the Democrats (led by Sali Berisha) in an
effort to end the unproductive political fractiousness that has
stalemated the government. The political duel between Nano and Berisha,
however, continued into 2003, 2004, and little improvement was evident
in the standard of living for Albanians.

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Dibrani_84


gjeneral
gjeneral
Economy
The tremendous financial crisis - due to the major restructuring
of the economic system - that had affected the country in the 1988-1992
period seemed to have come to an end when, with a sudden inversion of
trends, Albanian rate of growth exceeded those of most Eastern European
countries. A 7-8 % yearly GDP increase, contained unemployment and
stable inflation were read as clear signs of recover.
The progress realised from 1993 was mainly due to a policy of decentralisation and transition to a market economy.The process, though, caused - among different problems - a
restriction of the industrial sector that finally led to a financial
stall in 1995. The temporary difficulty was obviated through massive
investment in financial pyramids that were estimated to involve between
50 and 90% of the population.

The fall of the fragile system – and the uncover of many
instances of frauds – took the Albanian economic and political
establishment to collapse in 1997. The country fell into chaos and the
looting of several military depots resulted in a situation of anarchy
with an armed population and local gangs confronting each other in the
streets. An estimated 1,500 people lost their lives. Although most of
the looted weapons were recovered, still many citizens remain armed.

The immediate impact of the financial crisis did not have long
lasting effects: by the end of 1997, the production regained the
standards previously attained that were substantially reconfirmed in
the following years.
The current economic situation is characterised by persistent and
widespread poverty, a rather scarce industrial production (11,8% of
GDP) vis ą vis a considerable contribution from the agricultural sector
(52,9% of GDP). The first outcome of the limited production of refined
goods is the extremely high import rate resulting in substantial
imbalance.
The remittances coming from the 700,000 Albanians living abroad
still constitute the most flourishing resource of the country, mostly
considering the rise in the national unemployment rate (from 18 to 20%
in 1999).

The recent positive results registered in the fight against
organised criminality are probably going to reestablish the climate of
calm that might boost foreign investment in the internal market.
The lack of confidence in the government’s economic policy and the
level of unemployment (which reached about 16% at the end of 2003
according to the Albanian statistical office), are believed to be the
main factors with relevant negative influence in the economic
development of Albania. Nevertheless, the persistent deficiencies of
the Albanian judiciary, customs, taxation and other business-related
administrations, as well as the problem of corruption and the so far
unresolved issue of land ownership, continue preventing a significant
increase in investments and adversely affect economic prospects. A
detailed Action Plan was adopted in 2003, aiming at removing
administrative barriers to investment in the areas of customs and tax
administrations, land ownership and construction, the appeal system and
the provision of licenses for the non-food sector.
The economic climate, during 2004 was assessed satisfactory,
characterizing by very strong economic growth of about 6 % and the
average annual of 3.9%, which contributed to an improvement of the
situation in the labor market and supported the observance of the
budget estimate, which in line with the current IMF program of 2004 is
to amount to just under 5 % of GDP.
As a progress and important factor with regard to
market-oriented structural reforms, was the privatization of the
largest Albanian bank, the “Savings Bank”, on January 2004 from
Austrian Bank Reiffeisen, because the loans of this bank will stimulate
the private investments during 2005. This major step forward is also
expected to have a positive impact, together with the steps taken to
privatize the main Albanian insurance company, “INSIG”, represent
considerable progress towards the completion of the privatization of
the financial sector. Efforts need now to continue in order to complete
the restructuring and privatization of the remaining state owned
companies.
Some steps have also been taken in relation to the banking system.
Although the Albanian economy remains largely cash-driven and the
majority of transfers and payments are still carried out outside the
banking system, efforts are being made to promote the use of it,
notably through steps towards the payment of civil servants’ salaries
through the banks, and the encouragement to pay electricity and
telephone bills via the banking sector.
From 1998 to date, foreign investments in Albania are the lowest
in the region. Actually, they make up $35 per inhabitant and the public
investments are only at the 67 percent target level. One hundred
thousand Albanians leave Albania every year. Foreign and domestic firms
are treated equally under the law and are guaranteed safety from
expropriation or nationalization. The government does not screen
foreign investments, and nearly all sectors of the economy are open to
foreign investment. Political instability, crime, corruption, and a
thriving informal market continue to discourage foreign investment and
undermine the implementation of reform.
Current Economic Situation
The election of 2005 will develop different economic situations,
although the economic growth will be without doubt of 6 %. A big
challenge during the electoral year 2005 will be the creation of a
favor situation for a regular function of private sector. Albania is
considered a potential member of EU, therefore the private sector
should have the European standards, which is still far away.
The fiscal package for 2005 remains an important part of Tax
Revenue System, which means growth of incomes from costums and taxes as
well as the improvement of reports between tax system and private
sector, stimulating the international investments.
The development of Albanian economy during 2005- 2006 will be
stimulated by the private sector, which will be an important innovation
in banking sector. Such situation is based on a fiscal politic which
strengthen the public finances. The strategy of the European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) for Albania is to focus its
action on private sector development and support to SMEs, participation
in strategic privatization’s, more particularly in financial and
telecommunications sectors, and infrastructure financing and
development, especially in the energy and transport sectors.
Nevertheless, the financial sector still needs to strengthen its
structures, including banking supervision, and to play a more central
role in the country’s economic development (especially by being more
active in providing credits to productive units).
To improve business climate the government should reduce the
fiscal envasion and the fiscal package of 2005 is a good compromise
between the government and the business community.

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